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Sigmund freud research methods

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Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychology, has recently suffered some serious knocks. Critics outside the psychoanalytic movement, whether on the political left or right, saw Freud as a conservative. Fromm had argued that several aspects of psychoanalytic theory served the interests of political reaction in his The Fear of Freedom , an assessment confirmed by sympathetic writers on the right.

In Freud: The Mind of the Moralist , Philip Rieff portrayed Freud as a man who urged men to make the best of an inevitably unhappy fate, and admirable for that reason. Brown in Life Against Death Marcuse criticized neo-Freudian revisionism for discarding seemingly pessimistic theories such as the death instinct, arguing that they could be turned in a utopian direction.

Freud's theories also influenced the Frankfurt School and critical theory as a whole. Freud has been compared to Marx by Reich, who saw Freud's importance for psychiatry as parallel to that of Marx for economics, [] and by Paul Robinson, who sees Freud as a revolutionary whose contributions to twentieth century thought are comparable in importance to Marx's contributions to nineteenth century thought. Fromm nevertheless credits Freud with permanently changing the way human nature is understood. They believe this began with Freud's development of the theory of the Oedipus complex, which they see as idealist.

Jean-Paul Sartre critiques Freud's theory of the unconscious in Being and Nothingness , claiming that consciousness is essentially self-conscious.


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Sartre also attempts to adapt some of Freud's ideas to his own account of human life, and thereby develop an "existential psychoanalysis" in which causal categories are replaced by teleological categories. Adorno considers Edmund Husserl , the founder of phenomenology, to be Freud's philosophical opposite, writing that Husserl's polemic against psychologism could have been directed against psychoanalysis.

The Psychodynamic Approach

Several scholars see Freud as parallel to Plato , writing that they hold nearly the same theory of dreams and have similar theories of the tripartite structure of the human soul or personality, even if the hierarchy between the parts of the soul is almost reversed. Whereas Plato saw a hierarchy inherent in the nature of reality, and relied upon it to validate norms, Freud was a naturalist who could not follow such an approach.

Both men's theories drew a parallel between the structure of the human mind and that of society, but while Plato wanted to strengthen the super-ego, which corresponded to the aristocracy, Freud wanted to strengthen the ego, which corresponded to the middle class. Thomas's belief in the existence of an "unconscious consciousness" and his "frequent use of the word and concept 'libido' — sometimes in a more specific sense than Freud, but always in a manner in agreement with the Freudian use.

Auden in his collection Another Time. Literary critic Harold Bloom has been influenced by Freud. The decline in Freud's reputation has been attributed partly to the revival of feminism. Freud is also criticized by Shulamith Firestone and Eva Figes. In The Dialectic of Sex , Firestone argues that Freud was a "poet" who produced metaphors rather than literal truths; in her view, Freud, like feminists, recognized that sexuality was the crucial problem of modern life, but ignored the social context and failed to question society itself. Firestone interprets Freud's "metaphors" in terms of the facts of power within the family.

Figes tries in Patriarchal Attitudes to place Freud within a " history of ideas ". Juliet Mitchell defends Freud against his feminist critics in Psychoanalysis and Feminism , accusing them of misreading him and misunderstanding the implications of psychoanalytic theory for feminism. Mitchell helped introduce English-speaking feminists to Lacan. Gallop compliments Mitchell for her criticism of feminist discussions of Freud, but finds her treatment of Lacanian theory lacking.

Irigaray, who claims that "the cultural unconscious only recognizes the male sex", describes how this affects "accounts of the psychology of women". Psychologist Carol Gilligan writes that "The penchant of developmental theorists to project a masculine image, and one that appears frightening to women, goes back at least to Freud.

Gilligan notes that Nancy Chodorow , in contrast to Freud, attributes sexual difference not to anatomy but to the fact that male and female children have different early social environments. Chodorow, writing against the masculine bias of psychoanalysis, "replaces Freud's negative and derivative description of female psychology with a positive and direct account of her own. Toril Moi has developed a feminist perspective on psychoanalysis proposing that it is a discourse that "attempts to understand the psychic consequences of three universal traumas: the fact that there are others, the fact of sexual difference, and the fact of death".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Freud disambiguation. Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, c. Hampstead , London , United Kingdom. List of psychoanalysts List of psychoanalytical theorists. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Main article: Unconscious mind.

The Influence of Psychoanalysis on the Field of Psychology

Main article: The Interpretation of Dreams. Main article: Psychosexual development. Main article: Id, ego and super-ego. Main articles: Libido , Death drive , and Repetition compulsion. Main article: Freud and religion. Main article: Sigmund Freud bibliography. Psychology portal. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 8 June Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society.


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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology. New York: Random House , pp.

Psychoanalysis Assumptions

For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist , December Archived 31 December at the Wayback Machine For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. Freud and Psychoanalysis. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. BJPsych International. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, , pp. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge , p.

SUNY Press. For the date of the marriage, see Rice , p. Margolis, M. Psychoanal : 37— Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 17 January Edited and abridged by Lionel Trilling and Stephen Marcus.

Harmondsworth: Penguin Books p. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May In this period he published three papers: Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund April For a more in-depth analysis: Gamwell, Lynn; Solms, Mark The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 4 November The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. February Int J Psychoanal. A close study of Schopenhauer's central work, 'The World as Will and Representation', reveals that a number of Freud's most characteristic doctrines were first articulated by Schopenhauer.

Schopenhauer's concept of the will contains the foundations of what in Freud became the concepts of the unconscious and the id. Schopenhauer's writings on madness anticipate Freud's theory of repression and his first theory of the aetiology of neurosis. Schopenhauer's work contains aspects of what become the theory of free association.